1 1/2 – 3 1/2 Months


  • Turns head in general directions of sound
  • Looks at parents when they talk
  • Makes sounds with their saliva
  • Begins cooing, using vowel sounds like “aaa”, “eee”, “ooo”
  • Takes turns making sounds parents make


  • Looks at own hands
  • Bats overhead objects
  • Visually follows people and things past midline (center of body)
  • Combines two actions (e.g., sucking and looking around)


  • Smiles purposefully
  • Uses crying to alert parents of their needs
  • Imitates some facial movements
  • Shows excitement when seeing or hearing caregiver
  • Comforts self with thumb or pacifier


  • Uses voluntary movements (e.g., squirming, stretching, random movements of arms and legs)
  • Lifts head when lying on stomach and turns it from side to side
  • Bring hands to midline (middle of body)
  • Unclenches hands and uses them independently to bat objects

Suggested Books:

  • What is That? by T. Hoban
  • Black and White by T. Hoban
  • Humpty Dumpty and Other Rhymes by I. A. Opie & R. Wells

Suggested Activities:

  • Talk softly and wait for baby to respond
  • Tracking toys, hold toy over baby and slowly move the toy and watch baby follow it with their eyes